I was the first in my family to no have followed such tradition as my mother decided my fate and named me Sunny. Ever since that missed tradition I strives to set myself apart from other people within the Indian community. Anytime someone asks me where I am from, I simply tell them I was born and raised in the south. The truth is I have been all over the east coast splitting my childhood between the north and south. I started my Journey in Orlando, Florida (2 years), where I was born, then made my way to New Jersey (1 1 years), back own south to Georgia (6 years) and finally back to Jersey (4 years and counting).

What sets me apart from all other South Asians is my lack for Indian culture and native English tongue. I do not look or dress like other south Asians which allows me to diversify amongst my peers a lot easier than most. Living in America and going to school has made me forget my culture and language. In other words going to American schools you find it easier to fit in with others when you let go of your differences and come together with your similarities. Before you knew it I was not peaking anything but English even in my household Going back to what I said earlier, “Anytime someone asks me where I am from… ” After this dialogue people are usually not expecting me to have said what I said so they nervously continue and say, “Oh, you never been to India? “. Unlike most South Asians I only been to India one time and that was when I was 7 years old. That trip to India made me reacquaint myself with my Indian roots. I was not embarrassed or afraid of not fitting in when it comes to my religion but I simply wanted to distinguish myself s someone who is unique and different from the rest. I still embrace my religion and will always follow the traditions as it makes my mother happy and keeps me connected to who I am.

If I grew up in India there is no denying my ties to my religion but growing up in America was the transition phase between where I come from and where I am. When you are South Asian, growing up in America is not the best things because there are many cases in which we get mad fun of and even though I was Americanizes, I was still made fun of after people find out where I was from. This is hat made me not want to be Indian and not even American but my own person defined by my own standards.

After my move from Jersey to Georgia I felt more out of place than ever and I do not believe many people with my experience have had to go through such great change. I went from a school with a mix of Indian, Asian, Caucasian, African American etc. To a school with primarily all African American and Latino students. I was terrified because the school would have many fights and this is the time where I got made fun of the most probably due to the fact that the education system was so owe that I felt I dropped back a grade or two, and most importantly 9-11 Just had occurred not too long ago.

I was miserable and faced much torment due to the ignorant. I was no where close to the people who were involved in the 9-11 attacks but due to the poor education system of the southern public schools breading ignorance, I had to face those problems one attach at a time. I would not sit back and let people talk so I talked back and sometime got into trouble from the administration and of course fights I got myself into, without a possible out. After going through one year in Georgia public schools I made my way to a private Presbyterian Christian Academy.

I found myself to grow and better myself at this fine institution. I never felt more at home than I did at this school but at first it was scary, as I was the only Indian American their surrounded by primarily those of the Caucasian decent. I strives to excel amongst my peers and found a place where I was accepted and grow up in peace. I played every sport and Joined many clubs while making great lifelong friend, who I still talk to till this day. If I did not attend this school I would not be the man I am today.

After graduation I went to school in Gainesville state college for one year while my mom rapped up her business in Georgia so we could make the move back to Jersey where the opportunities were a lot greater. I transferred to NIST and found myself to grow even further as I toke my experience that I earned over the years and put it into effect. I am now to graduate at the end of this summer and will most likely work with my Penile, the company I last interned with as a Marketing Intern.

Following is a brief discussion on how successive government policies and non-government organizations have ride to deal with and eradicate racism and discrimination against minority groups in Australia since the White Australia’ policy was abolished in the sass’s. Lastly, the tensions that remain today in multicultural Australia are explored. Part 1 What is race? During the late 18th and early 19th centuries it was thought that humans could be divided into different groups according to their biological makeup, or alternatively, their race.

The term ‘race’ focused more on common features that were shared among a single species, rather than placing emphasis on the characteristics which vivid us (Cohen & Kennedy, 2007; Giddiness, 2001). The emerging theories of race were used to Justify the rising social order as England along with other European nations became imperial powers. It was thought that there were three main race categories, white, black and yellow, with the white race being the superior race (Giddiness, 2001).

Today, sociologists reject the idea of racial hierarchy amongst humankind and propose that ‘race’ is “a social construct related to the ways that people and cultures interpret, and react to, minor physical differences” (Van Krieger, Habits, Smith, Hutchins, Harmless & Holbrook, 2006, p. 264). The idea of significant biological differences has been debunked in contemporary sociology and the notion replaced with the emergence of ethnicity. What is ethnicity?

The idea of ‘race’ is a social construct based on innate physical differences, while ‘ethnicity is purely social in meaning based on less obvious differences such as social markers of culture, language, religion, style of dress and nationality (Giddiness, 2001 ; Cohen & Kennedy, 2007; Van Krieger et al, 2010; Amounts & Juan, 2004). In other rods, it looks at how one group of people are distinguishable from another based on differences that are learned. In practice, ethnic labels almost always apply to minority groups within a society.

This is problematic in the sense that it poses a risk of separation between ‘us’ and them’ (Giddiness, 2001; Van Krieger et al, 2010). Another problem is that ethnic groupings are often too generic. In Australia, for example, we might speak of a Muslim ethnic group or the Muslim community. ‘Muslim’, therefore, becomes one category which in fact holds a number of subgroups itself which does not get acknowledged. Another issue arising from ethnic grouping is that labels are usually given to the minority, when in fact, we are all ethnic regardless of if we belong to an ethnic minority or majority. What is prejudice?

Prejudice “refers to opinions or attitudes held by members of one groups towards another” (Giddiness, 2001, p. 250). These opinions and attitudes are usually based on change even when presented with evidence stating otherwise (Microeconomic, Hollingsworth & Pitman, 1988). Prejudice is based on internal beliefs and when those beliefs lead to a particular behavior as a result it turns into discrimination. For example, if people are denied the same opportunities, such as gaining employment, based on their skin color, their ethnicity or disability as a result of prejudice, prejudice becomes discrimination.

What is racism? When we speak of race, ethnicity and prejudice we are intrinsically linking racism as well. Racism is prejudice taken another step further. In contrast to prejudice, racism is based on perceived cultural superiority, which is itself based on perceived genetic superiority (Microeconomic et al, 1988). There are two forms of racism: individual and institutional. Individual racism involves one-on-one scenarios where racist attitudes are expressed based on a particular individuals belief towards another.

For example, one person might be of the opinion that all Aboriginals are dirty, and therefore, be racist to an Aboriginal when they are walking down the street, at school or work. Institutional racism on the other hand is far broader in context and more complex. It refers to the ways in which racism has infiltrated into social institutions which govern, discriminate and oppress various groups within that society based on their race (Microeconomic et al, 1988). These institutions within our societies, such as schools and healthcare services, use racism in a systematic manner which favors one group over all the others.

Although racism as a notion is the same for both individual and institutional purposes, the consequences of the two are vastly different. Sociologists have argued that in the recent years racism has shifted from excluding groups on a biological basis, to more of a cultural basis of difference (Giddiness, 2001; Van Krieger et al, 2010). In this new wave of racism there are clearly underlying political dimensions. The White Australia policy (sass’s – sass’s) Australia as we know it today is a result of careful political planning and construction to create a particular kind of society.

From early European settlers until the late 19th century Australia had an open immigration policy (Cope, Castles & Assailants, 1991). Everyone was welcome and encouraged to come as populating the land was the primary concern. However, immigration legislation changed as unemployment rates started rising and fears of over population from the Chinese was ignited. As a result, the White Australia policy was introduced in 1980 and lasted through to early sass’s (Van Krieger et al, 2010; Cup, 2002). Economic and cultural reasons were the main reasons for introducing the White Australia policy (Windcheater, 2005).

Social cohesion was a real concern at the time and it was believed that solidarity could not be maintained with so many ‘inferior’ races populating the nation. It was believed that, in accordance to Darning’s theory of evolution, the fittest race will survive and the weakest would be eliminated accordingly. These were the main underlying rationales for keeping Australia as ‘pure’ as possible. Contemporary Australians As contemporary Australia becomes more diverse, racist attitudes embedded from immigration history and previous policies can still be felt. Expression of racism through attitudes and behaviors has taken on new form.

Contemporary expressions of racism tend to be focused on national identity and nationhood rather than genetic superiority, and tend to also be fuelled by the popular media. Once again, the concern appears to be on social cohesion and the belief that minority groups place the cohesion and national identity at risk, showing remnants of the White Australia policy. Inherent racist beliefs and attitudes expressed today are targeted towards minority groups who potentially are the most disadvantaged. Measures taken by the government to address this disadvantage is seen as an unfair privileged treatment at the expense of the majority.

Examples of this include opposition towards action policies promoting Indigenous Australians into certain Jobs and provision of English language support to newcomers. Attempts at eradicating racism and discrimination against minority groups and individuals since the end of the White Australia policy Assimilation lasted from the sass’s until the mid sass’s. This new policy adopted the assumptions from the White Australia policy on preserving the society as homogeneous in order to keep cohesion and harmoniousness.

It meant that immigrants should absorb themselves into mainstream culture as quickly as possible and become as ‘Australian’ as possible (Van Krieger et al, 2010; Cope et al, 1991). Government policies were put into place for English language lessons, which were at the centre of the policy, along with services to help migrants find employment and help them out with housing upon their arrival (Van Krieger et al, 2010). In other words, the main emphasis of the assimilation policy was to make them’ look like ‘us’ as much and as quickly as Seibel.

Integration followed on from assimilation and lasted from the mid sass’s to the early sass’s. The expectations of the assimilation policy and the evident reality were rather different and as a result the integration approach appeared. The government shifted focus from making them’ like ‘us’ to educating the Australian public to accept and welcome the new changes and the need to change attitudes to be less fearful and negative to more tolerant. With new policies developed at the time, overall differences were welcomed and encouraged into the public domain.

By he early to mid sass’s multiculturalism was introduced as an attempt to ease some of the tensions and anxieties and started the shift from British focused immigration. The Racial Discrimination Act was introduced in 1975 and racism was officially legislated against. Under the new ERDA it became against the law to discriminate in areas such as housing, employment and provision of services. By the sass’s, multiculturalism was being redefined, and the emphasis of the concept was equity across the board for all individuals in Australia irrespective of their background (Van Krieger et al, 2010).

Multiculturalism was a concept encompassing the need for unity, inclusion, tolerance, acceptance and equality. Despite the push by the government for all residents to identify as an Australian and work together to develop a national identity, whilst providing equal opportunities and access across the board, it hasn’t been an easy Journey to date. At the core of the issue of Australia as a multicultural nation is national identity. Defining what it means to be ‘Australian’ has been problematic over the years and has usually reflected political movements.

Remnants of White Australia policy can still, however, e felt in today’s society as they are expressed through traditional racist attitudes and beliefs and are sometimes the cause of racial attacks, segregation and anxiety of minority groups. Moreover, tension exists on a number of other issues including the feeling of displacement for migrants of non-English-speaking background who after some time do not identify with the Australian national identity nor with their mother- land Popup, 2002). They face a number of adjustment issues as well such as struggling to gain employment.

Other issues still relevant in multicultural Australia include emitted inclusion of Indigenous issues within the policies, tension in relation to Asian immigration, the extent to which different value and belief systems are accepted and allowed for, the uncertainty of the role and nature of ethnic and minority groups within the broader mainstream society, the correlation of class, gender and ethnicity, the conflict between inclusion and tolerance and the currently hot debated issue on asylum seekers Popup, 2002; Van Krieger et al, 2010).

In conclusion, whilst multiculturalism has certainly been a step forward and progressive thus far in unifying all Australian citizens as one there is still a long way to go before the ideal is achieved. More research is needed in areas that affect minority groups and the daily issues they are faced with based on their gender, age and ethnicity. The findings need to be considered and used when in writing new policies for the nation. While there is no easy answer to any of the issues Australia is faced with today, a new form of multiculturalism with an even bigger focus on unity, respect and mindfulness is needed in progressing forward.

Race and ethnicity may be defined as a type of grouping or classification based on a persons origin of birth and Includes their racial appearance, language, religion and culture. Ethnicity can be defined as a social construction that indicates identification with a particular group who share common cultural traits, such as language, religion and traditions. Terms like ethnocentrism, racism, stereotyping, and ethnicity can affect our health status, our economical status, and Just basically our status In society. Race defines ho we are, and In some cases It Is the root of discrimination problems.

Individuals dislike other people because they do not like how they are: whether it is physically or the way they think and act. We look at people and experiences through race and culture. I was raised with family that had introverted personalities. This is one of the reasons why my personality is also like that. I grew up recognizing differences in races and ethnicity and it never affected my way of being, I simply saw everyone the same, with the same potential and equal opportunity. I have been taught by the spoken and unspoken ways of my parents, teachers. Rinds; I have simply grown up recognizing what is wrong and what is right among society. I was born in California but both my parents are Mexican, which makes me Hispanic. My experiences of racial profiling or prejudice due to my ethnic background or my Hispanic look have not been too common or extremely racist. My high school was about 99. 99 percent Hispanic student body, so there was very little If any racial tension among students. It was when we would go out of that part of town that I loud actually see racial comments made and shown by others.

I was involved in the baseball team and tennis team at my high school, and I would see some sort of labeling or stereotyping aimed at me and my teammates when we would play in other schools with Angles or Blacks. Since we were one of the poorest schools in the city they would automatically assume we weren’t adequately prepared to be playing a team Like them. Their stereotypes of us would make them think that we didn’t speak English and our playing abilities would be very novice since we didn’t have the tools r money to afford good equipment or a coach at a young age.

However, I will admit that we would also Judge them as being too cocky, and with the conventional White people’ stereotypes. Though most of the time we were right because these were rich kids with almost everything handed to them. Smart and use those stereotypes to their advantage. I honestly never paid attention to my lack of resources, instead I knew that if I wanted something I was going to try and get it. A big misconception that surrounded our school or the part of town that I ivied in was that we were not going to make it to college, in fact, we would be lucky if we actually graduated from high school.

The name of our high school was very much and icon or a symbol. I knew some friends that wouldn’t give out the name of our school because they were afraid of being labeled a “loser” in some way. Basically, going to my school meant that we were low IQ destined to work at low paying Jobs, simply because many were Mexican immigrants or first generation American born. For our advantage, now a day being in the minority can actually help you enroll into alleges of your choice and get scholarships to help pay for college.

Perceptions play a great roll on Judging others; many times it is influenced by race and ethnicity. It is clear to me that if lived in a more diverse part of the city; my experiences would be the very different. As society grows more with different cultures, races and ethnics, tension grows and people start disliking others ways of being that are not like theirs. But it is important to understand that it is not healthy to have prejudice feelings towards others, it only makes one bitter.

These attributes based on ethnicity and ace have been falsely constructed by the society due to roles adopted or forced upon by these various social groups based on holsters events. I have chosen to depict the race and ethnic construction In a 20th century American society through the movie Glory Road. Glory Road Is a movie based on a true story that revolves around the difficulties and hardships faced by the basketball team of the Texas Western University. The movie shows how the team was a victim of an extremely harsh form of racism.

It follows the story of a coach named Don Haskins who is responsible for excreting a team of African-American players in addition to the existing White’ players to play for the university team. In this movie, it has been clearly shown that African-American students, or ‘negro’ students as they are referred to in the movie are looked down upon by the society consisting of a majority of White’ people. The white people believe themselves to be superior to the blacks and thereby treat them with extreme hostility. This was a continuation of the racial inequality that stemmed from the system of slavery in America.

As the team of ‘negro’ players begins to gain popularity, the dissent in the dominantly white society escalates rapidly. Hostile crowds receive the team as they travel across the country playing basketball. These crowds throw things at them, vandalize their motel rooms with blood smeared walls and even go to the extent of brutally hurting one of the ‘Negroes’ when he goes to a restroom. It can be understood, that the negro player has been socially constructed to be inferior simply due to their ethnicity. They are believed to be less intelligent ND are even compared to monkeys by a rival coach in the movie.

However, due to the recent success of this dominantly black team, the whites begin to feel Inferior to them and thereby retaliate physically through violence. The plot of the movie Is created due to a break in the conventional social construction that the basketball team of a university is comprised of white students. White students who were trained by a white coach and studied In a University filled with white students. This was the norm that was being challenged by the coach Don Haskins who simply anted to give these ‘negro students an opportunity to receive an education.

Racial Inequality In the education system Is depicted In the movie through scenes that emphasize a majority of college students being white and the surprise on their faces when they see a black student In their school. Forms of personal racism are also shown in the movie such as stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination. Members of show their discontent for coach Haskins’ movement but they did feel uneasy about it. However, their uneasy feelings began to change when they heard of the team’s success, which leads us to believe that they were racist only for as long a time period as there was no direct benefit to them as individuals.

The competing social construction would be one in which there was no differentiation based on the race/ ethnicity of the players belonging to the team. It would be a construction where the blacks were not suppressed and thought to be inferior to whites. I believe that an example of a competing social construction would probably be the construction of our society today, where students are not discriminated based on their ethnicity but re encouraged to participate and selected based on their individual skills and talents.

The betrayals in the movie directly correspond to the norms of our present day where people believe African Americans to be more athletically inclined but less intelligent than white people. This norm is harmful and beneficial to both parties. It means that a black person is more like to be hired for an athletic position but less likely for a working Job and the exact opposite for a white person. Studies in the present day have indicated that a black person is only 33% as likely as a white person o get a Job even if they both apply with identical credentials.

It has been shown that the unemployment of black people is twice as high as that of white people (Newman, 166). The times are rapidly changing. Movies such as glory road bring to light the inhumanity that has been dominant in societies of the past that lead to discomfort and a hostile environment. People are more aware of things such as an abolition of discrimination and a promotion of equality as they aim towards times of peace. History was made in 2008, when a man of black origin was made President of the name country in which blacks were hated Just a few decades ago.

The name of this man was President Barack Obama. It represented a transition to a time with more equality and less racial discrimination. These are direct results of the efforts of movies such as glory road and also the efforts of various activists through the generations. Even though race and ethnicity were socially constructed, the norms are beginning to change in our modern world where every person is given an equal opportunity to achieve the goals they dream of.